diversity, gender, gender gaps, Inclusion, International Women's Day, Silicon Valley, women in tech, women in the labor force, Women's rights

Silicon Valley on International Women’s Day 2018

It’s been a rock and roll year for women’s rights. Just when you thought the 2016 elections in the US were a reality TV show titled ‘battle of the sexes: who will be President’, along came 2017 and brought us the biggest women’s march in history followed by the creation of a popular movement to end sexual harassment. Much ink has been spilled in an effort to make sense of these momentous events – what were the cultural, technological and historical contexts which set up the conditions of this to take place? What created a perfect storm of feminist consciousness?

On International Women’s Day 2018, I’d like to put on my own analysis hat and look at how these broader themes played out in my microcosm of lived experiences spanning the length of the peninsula between foggy San-Francisco and sunny San-Jose: Silicon Valley. The fabled and the mythological collided with reality more than once this past year, and giants were shaken to their core in the name of equality and justice. Though the Valley, and the companies it sprung which are rooted in the ethos of innovating to improve people’s lives, has always been a place where people came together to be better, it wasn’t until 2017 when the reality of corporate America finally collided with the founding principles of these same tech giants.

Scandals and public outrage aren’t new – what 2017 brought to light were the gender dimensions of these pain points. Although revelations of discrimination, sexism, bro-culture and even harassment have been around for a while, and the pioneering law-suit brought by Ellen Pow really opened up this conversation space, it seems Silicon Valley titans hadn’t been paying attention. Now that both the #metoo movement has risen to prominence and diversity efforts are finally giving rise to a multiplicity of voices and some measures of accountability, the landscape is beginning to shift.

The year kicked off with the infamous ‘Google Manifesto’ written by a Google employee named James Damore who used an internal company forum to post a ten-page ramble which made the case that women weren’t cut out for tech. This so called ‘manifesto’ which was just a really long blog post, used a lot of motivated reasoning and pseudo-scientific studies to try and make this point, but ultimately this MGTOW[1] test-case failed spectacularly. In the effort to subvert the progress Silicon Valley has made on increasing women’s representation in tech, the document and subsequent lawsuit (after Google fired Damore), played into the hands of diversity proponents by encouraging every CEO in the Valley, more than one top VC, and even top journals like The Economist[2], to publish full throated endorsement of diversity efforts. The lawsuit also failed because Google has every right to fire someone who’s creating a hostile work environment. obviously.

Some said the manifesto was simply reflecting an existing feeling of resentment and even ‘the beginnings of a backlash’ against diversity efforts, as though the technocrats behind these kinds of policies (full disclosure: I’m one of them) are to blame for people’s adverse reactions. That maybe in the process of changing a flawed system we’re making some people uncomfortable. Here’s the thing though: change is not always comfortable, it’s not easy, and there are winners and losers. It’s not a level playing field, and in order to make it one, which will ultimately lead to better results across the board, some people will need to consciously make room for others.

If you think about the 2016 elections in which a purportedly ‘disenfranchised’ and ignored part of America’s citizenry, living in poor, under-developed, sparsely populated regions, voted en-mass for a populist candidate, it’s easy to see the dangers of ignoring inequities. This works both ways. Women and people of color who’ve traditionally and systematically been left out of the means of production have been fighting back for a century. The civil rights movement and the feminist movement weren’t welcomed with open arms, they faced resistance by those who were worried about losing their privileges. The same resistance that James Damore expressed in his manifesto, and the same anger that gave rise to Trumpism, is precisely why diversity efforts must continue. It’s also evidence that they’re working.

It’s clear that Silicon Valley is changing, in part through public pressure and in part though thoughtful leadership which cares about increasing the talent pool for their companies and doing what’s right. The ethos of the tech entrepreneur as a white male Stanford or Harvard dropout is no longer true nor indicative of the real leaders of the tech industry. But more importantly, these myths which helped perpetuate obsolete attitudes have no place in the realities of 2018, where women have stood proud and tall together to say that they will not stay silent in face of a system which glorifies and celebrates bad behavior as part of a narrative of prosperity.

On International Women’s Day 2018, it feels like the winds of change are finally sweeping the last vestiges of ‘the old boys club’ away from the peninsula, and making room for egalitarian and purposeful measures to increase women’s representation in tech.

Keshet Bachan

[1] ‘Men Going Their Own Way’:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Men_Going_Their_Own_Way

[2] ‘The email Larry Page should have written to James Damore’:  https://www.economist.com/news/international/21726276-last-week-newspaper-said-alphabets-boss-should-write-detailed-ringing-rebuttal

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diversity, gender, Inclusion, male allies, masculinities, stereotyping

Why we need white male allies to fight for diversity – repost!

This fantastic piece from Mike Dillon at PWC showcases the importance of diversity efforts that include EVERYONE, especially white male allies who are so often excluded from diversity strategies. It’s also worth noting that not including men in diversity efforts places all the responsibility for leading these strategies on women and minorities, who are already facing challenges in the workplace including discrimination and bias.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/why-we-need-white-male-allies-fight-diversity-inclusion-mike-dillon/

A couple weeks back, I served as a panelist at The Better Man Conference, an annual event in the San Francisco Bay Area focused on engaging men in conversations around inclusionary leadership for women and minorities. On stage, I was joined by a diverse group of fellow panelists: Dr. Ronald Copeland of Kaiser Permanente, Nadia Chargualaf of Telestra, Lesley Slaton-Brown of HP, and Dale Thomas Vaughn of the Gender Leadership Group.

To my surprise, during the Q&A session, an audience member raised her hand and asked me, “As a white man, why are you on this panel? Why do you care about diversity?”

I didn’t see it coming. I felt her comment seemed to question my credentials as PwC’s Chief Diversity Officer. Almost as a reflex I responded by saying: “As an out gay man, I understand exclusion because of my sexual orientation.”

But as I thought more and more about my response, I realized that it shouldn’t matter if I was gay or not. I shouldn’t have to be part of a minority or underrepresented group to care about diversity and inclusion. And if anything, we should want more straight white men to be allies and to be engaged in discussions about diversity and inclusion.

Indeed, everyone should strive to learn from the experiences of those who are different from us. And the more allies we can make by having open dialogues and conversations with each other, the more impact we can truly have.

By engaging in conversations with those who are different from us, we are able to challenge assumptions and break down unconscious biases. This is an important first step in becoming allies and supporting others — which includes speaking up for them, giving them opportunities to speak for themselves, and listening and learning from their unique experiences and perspectives.

As a white male, who is a partner at a major firm like PwC, I am able to use my political capital to advocate for diversity and inclusion in Corporate America. That’s why I am always committed to being an ally for others, to elevating conversations around D&I, and to giving underrepresented and minority groups platforms to be heard. One great example of how we’re doing this at PwC is our HeForShe Ally Champion Network, where we educate both our male and female staff members to come together to support global gender parity.

When fighting for greater inclusion, we have to remember that it takes everyone’s involvement to really make societal change happen. As journalist and immigrant rights activist Jose Antonio Vargas reminds us, “You don’t have to be gay to fight for LGBT rights, you don’t have to be an immigrant to fight for immigrant rights, you don’t have to be a woman to be a feminist.” As Vargas rightly points out, equality is a two-way street, “my equality is tied to your equality.”

This all brings me back to why having conversations about diversity and inclusion at work is so important. These conversations can be uncomfortable for everyone (white, black, brown, gay, straight, cis, transgender, male, female, etc.). You don’t want to misspeak or ask a question that might offend someone. But it’s important that we build the trust that is needed to have these conversations so we can move forward toward greater diversity and inclusion as allies. I’m proud that at PwC, we haven’t been afraid to have these conversations because we know it is a first step to bringing allyship into the workplace and hopefully beyond.

Mike Dillon

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gender

Rethinking Informed Consent in the Digital Age

This is an important and timely discussion of informed consent with a specific girl’s rights lens! the concept of ‘duty of care’ is particularly useful, shifting the burden of responsibility back to the institutional entity rather than the individual, which is ultimately responsible for how and if data about vulnerable constituencies is used.

Wait... What?

This post is co-authored by Emily Tomkys, Oxfam GB; Danna Ingleton, Amnesty International; and me (Linda Raftree, Independent)

At the MERL Tech conference in DC this month, we ran a breakout session on rethinking consent in the digital age. Most INGOs have not updated their consent forms and policies for many years, yet the growing use of technology in our work, for many different purposes, raises many questions and insecurities that are difficult to address. Our old ways of requesting and managing consent need to be modernized to meet the new realities of digital data and the changing nature of data. Is informed consent even possible when data is digital and/or opened? Do we have any way of controlling what happens with that data once it is digital? How often are organizations violating national and global data privacy laws? Can technology be part of the answer?

Let’s take a moment…

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gender, girls rights, Human Rights, Women's rights

A Brave Space

At the recent Gender360 Summit I was introduced by my former boss and beloved colleague Feyi Rodway to the concept of creating ‘brave spaces’. This term seems to have surfaced during discussion groups and research she conducted in Ghana and indicated a move away from the notion of ‘safe spaces’ to a space that inspires one to speak out. This being a new term for me, which nonetheless resonated deeply, i decided to do some digging and figure out where this idea came from and what it sets out to accomplish.

As we know all great journeys begin with a google search, and I quickly found what appears to be a seminal 2013 piece titled ‘from safe spaces to brave spaces’ by Brian Arao and Kristi Clemens. In this article they explore the notion of safe spaces which arose out of facilitating social justice discussions with students at NY University. they spend some time discussing what a safe space actually is which pretty much does what it says on the can, and through a series of agreed guidelines sets basic ‘rules of engagement’ that ensure people’s views won’t be attacked, belittled, ridiculed or dismissed. they quickly realized that their students were conflating ‘safety’ with ‘comfort’, and the moment a discussion moved from ‘political to provocative’ students invoked the rules of safe space to essentially shut down the conversation.

Democracy rests on the belief that freedom of speech, even when it is painful, difficult, aggravating or hurtful, is necessary for the protection of everyone’s rights.  as the famous saying goes “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”. Yet this notion of listening to and giving space to views that challenge our established beliefs, seems to have been undermined by the idea that a safe space means avoiding discomfort at all times. Arao and Clemens felt that students were not adequately prepared to deal with controversial or politicized issues since the expectation of being challenged was removed in the notion of creating ‘safety’ which led students to ‘discount, deflect and retreat’  the moment they felt ‘unsafe’, that is, uncomfortable.

Their solution, is to replace the unhelpful idea of safety with that of bravery, which would ‘help students rise to the challenges of genuine dialogue on diversity and social justice issues’. The article doesn’t go far enough to my mind as it stays in the realm of discussion guidelines for facilitators by setting out new common rules for creating a brave space. this assumes too much a level playing field of values and language, and background and geography. Their articulation of ‘brave spaces’ doesn’t travel well.

However, if we think of the basic tenet of the move from safety (comfort) to bravery (meeting challenges) this works very well in the context of effective advocacy. Much of the work that I’ve led to build young people’s capacity to be effective advocates, to speak truth to power, is about building their self efficacy and agency. The basic premise of this work rests on the assumption that the space these youth advocates are entering is not safe, that they will be a minority in an adult arena where their views are most likely to be dismissed due to their age, and where they will most likely meet with hostility by those in power who they are holding to account.

This means that creating a brave space becomes an act of conscious and deliberate actions that go beyond agreed behavior guidelines, to building the capacity of youth advocates to meet challenges, and in turn, work with those in power to become open to being challenged. In other words, creating a brave space requires working with those about to enter this space before they even get there and it requires an active intervention of facilitators that work against power imbalances in any way they can (this could include changing discussion format or even language).

for me the move from safe spaces to brave spaces can best be summed up as the move from ‘hearing’ to ‘listening’. and when we finally listen to those who we don’t usually hear from, a whole world of possibilities opens up.

 

Keshet BD

 

 

 

 

 

 

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gender

The Importance of Data: To Make Women Count, Count Women

Melinda Gates pledges $80 million to close gender gaps through data. will Gates do for advancing gender equality what they did for eliminating malaria? one can only hope!

Girls' Globe

“We can’t close the gender gap without closing the data gap.” That was the key message of the speech by Melinda Gates at a session titled “A Girls’ and Women’s lens on the SDGs ” at Women Deliver. With a new plan of action, new goals and a new roadmap for achieving them, it is more crucial than ever to ensure we are able to measure the progress properly. Yet, the data is still incomplete, and the dark numbers are huge. Is it really that difficult to gather data, and how do we change that?

Data is necessary for knowing what’s happening, and how to move further. Without being able to measure the right things, we cannot know where and how to invest money and time. And often, where help is the most needed, the numbers are the most misleading. As Gates pointed out later on during her presentation…

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gender, girls rights, human rights, ICT4D, SDGs

First, do no harm

As a gender and development practitioner who works specifically with girls and young women who are under 18 years of age, I get asked a lot about what i take into consideration when developing or advising others on the development of a program to empower girls in living poverty. My response? there are many things to take into account, but first and foremost, consider whether your intervention might put them at risk. if the answer is yes, and ofttimes it will be especially if the program is gender transformative, i.e. challenging existing power structures, then one must honestly consider whether the risk level is acceptable and what if anything can be put in place to mitigate this risk.

When we’re working on challenging gender norms and changing social behaviors, we are actively disrupting the status quo. and this can make some people resistant, uncomfortable, fearful or even violent. especially those who are in positions of power, and who might feel like this power is being directly or indirectly challenged. for instance,  a woman finding gainful employment or joining a savings groups which gives her control over her income might experience backlash from her spouse, children or the wider community.

Working with those who are under 18 requires that we consider their evolving capacity to handle such risks and the consequences to their lives. different age groups are at different cognitive and behavioral development stages and that’s a hugely important factor to consider. for instance, sex education curricula will not be the same for early adolescents (10/11-14) and late adolescents (14-18) who are most likely already sexually active.

Children and young people are also still considered legal wards of their families and care-takers, and so any intervention that involves them necessarily involves more than just one individual. this is an important point that often differentiates working with children and youth from working with adults. Any program that involves children and youth, also requires informed consent, which depending on the program can be a huge sticking point.

After establishing the unique parameters of working with under 18’s, we come to the issue of risk. how to define what’s too great a risk, and what can conceivably be seen in the context of our work to transform relations between the sexes, as the  acceptable cost of doing business?

To paraphrase from my favorite show – when it comes to risk in programming with girls, when is a risk too risky?

The first part of this answer is philosophical and ethical. From a child protection perspective you could say that ensuring every part of a program is ‘in the best interest of the child’ is paramount. From a social change perspective you could say that empowering children to speak out and affect change trumps an (ofttimes) paternalistic child protection approach which would deny the child a chance to exercise their agency. both of these need to be taken into consideration in terms of the goals of a program. for instance, if the goal is to change social norms by organizing a group of girl advocates who will speak out against early pregnancy in their communities, then one must weigh the risk of community backlash with the real possibility that this kind of work could save lives.

There’s no easy answer, and ‘doing no harm’ is above all our main objective, though we must weigh the likelihood and severity of risks in light of the potential transformative change our project could achieve. I would also add, again, that any intervention which seeks to challenge patriarchy in all its forms carries inherent risks. For me that is a given, however, there are clear ways in which these risks can be substantially reduced through effective programming, even if not eliminated altogether.

The second part of this answer is technical. Any self respecting organization will conduct risk analyses for programs, initiatives, events or engagements involving young people. this is the best space to evaluate the risk levels and agree on mitigation steps. an example of a risk assessment (for an event) will look something like this:

RA

Even visually, color coding a risk assessment can offer a good ‘at glance’ measure for deciding whether the risk levels are too high – if half the document is red, then you should go back to the drawing board.

Finally, I would also suggest that a good way of evaluating risk to young people or children can be done by including them in program design. working with children and young people is the best way to gain insights into their lived realities and ensure any intervention is tailored to address their experiences as they perceive them. this is especially relevant when working with adolescent girls, since they will experience different social pressures depending on cultural context and are best placed to gauge the reactions of their families, communities and peers to any actions they will take to challenge the patriarchal status quo.

Keshet Bachan

 

 

 

 

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gender

Girls Want

The epic USA victory over Japan yesterday at the Women’s FIFA World Cup, and the entire tournament really, showed the world that women in sports can be competitive and fight for victory with a passion and fierceness that defies social expectations at every turn. the girls on the field weren’t thinking about their makeup or the way they will look if they make a face or shout with joy. the wanted to win, and when they scored, they roared. It was beautiful.

Title 9 in the USA, which stipulated that colleges couldn’t discriminate on the basis of sex in funding sports, is largely responsible for last night’s epic win. see? policies and legislation work. the right investment makes all the difference. gender roles aren’t written in stone – they change with the times, and they change when society makes a decision to stand up for what’s right. I can only imagine the kind of impact the Equal Rights Amendment would have on women’s rights if Congress finally ratified the ERA into the constitution.

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equal rights amendment, gender, gender gaps, women in politics, Women's rights

equal means equal – right?

It’s been a good month for equality in the United States. The country celebrated transgender rights and threw Caitlyn Jenner the nicest coming out party ever. SCOTUS handed down a landmark decision to make gay marriage legal in all 50 states. And there’s a woman running for president.

Granted, transgender rights still have a long way to go – check out John Oliver’s segment on the issue. He really exposes the ways in which we currently view transgender people – most of us seem confused, and the rest want to ask them about their privates. Legally, they still have an uphill battle with many States viewing transgender identity as a lifestyle choice. and they still face higher rates of poverty, suicide and violence than the general public.

The gay movement is celebrating marriage equality and everyone is changing their Facebook profile photo. however, a moving piece by Darnell Moore exposes the ways in which the LGBTQ+ movement has failed to include him ‘under the rainbow’. he writes: ‘the “movement” might care about my queerness, but it certainly does not value my blackness’. this sentiment is one that the gay movement will have to address very soon if it wishes to stay true to its cause.

Historically, the feminist and gay movement have not always gotten on well. Feminists see the inclusion of gay women’s issues as a distraction from issues faced by all women regardless of their sexual orientation, and gay women see the feminist majority as trying to erase their experiences and unique challenges. The PBS documentary ‘Makers: Women Who Made America‘ takes a good look at the cost of this struggle. The schism has been so great that to this day you’ll find countries like Ireland, where gays can get married but women can’t get a legal abortion.

But here’s the thing –

Equality is for everybody. discrimination on the basis of sex or sexual orientation is unjust and it should be illegal. How those two have managed to be separated in the eyes of the public and of legislators is a question for another day. But for now I think the time is right for the feminist movement to reclaim this space and leverage the current public support for equal rights to fight for what we deserve.

rosie era

and thankfully – I’m not alone in my convictions.

On June 23rd, Meryl Streep sent five hundred and thirty-five letters to each and every Member of Congress urging them to support a constitutional amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women. Ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment stalled in 1982 as it was ratified by only 35 states, three states short of the 38 required to put it into the Constitution. The ERA has been introduced in Congress every year since, with little result. the ERA, together with much of the feminist movement, seemed stuck.

But the tide is turning. a new generation of feminists have taken up the call. a slew of girl’s empowerment campaigns have emerged, some led by civil society and some by large brands (#likeagirl, this girl can, Dove real beauty to name a few). they have both capitalized on the renewed feminist energy and also been instrumental in creating an added momentum. and with the wind of civil rights victories at our back, and a female presidential candidate with an outstanding record on advancing women’s rights at our lead, we might just make the ERA happen before I’m gray and old.

era

Jessica Neuwirth is the Founder and President of the ERA Coalition which is working to create a broad base of support for the ERA across America. ‘Equal Means Equal’ is a documentary produced by Patricia Arquette which takes a long hard look at the reality of women’s lives without the ERA and the personal cost to their freedom and civil liberties. Issues that have been getting more attention lately, from the pay gap and paid family leave, to domestic violence and trafficking, are all linked to the unequal treatment of women under the law and the continued discrimination they face in the United States in 2015.

I can only hope we have the courage to come together with the support of our brothers and sisters in the LGBTQ+ community, and demand an end to discrimination against women with a constitutional guarantee.

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gender, media, stereotyping, violence against women, Women's rights

Bad Ads

It seems like lately there are more and more incidences of advertisements ‘going wrong’ in objectifying ways. Take a look at these two recent examples —

Bud Light thought this was a good advertising catchphrase:

bud light

‘the perfect beer for removing “no” from your vocabulary for the night’ #upforwhatever

And recently a public transport authority in Wales came out with this winner:

ride me

‘Ride me all day long for 3 pounds’

You have to wonder at the approval process for these ads, and why didn’t anyone say at some point ‘hold on, this might be a horrible thing to say’.

Although these adverts are awful, the negative reaction it drew from audiences who were quick to mobilize against these brands are a reason to celebrate. From the flood of emails and tweets aimed at NAT, which prompted them to remove this ad from all their buses, to the John Oliver segment on Last Week Tonight literally ‘taking the piss’ out of Bud Light.

This leaves me optimistic. The general public knows objectification and sexual violence innuendo when it sees it, and we’re not afraid to call people out on this. Advertising executives are being a held to a higher standard, and brands are now acutely aware of the cost of these sorts of faux pas.

Let’s hope they learn from each other’s mistakes.

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Commission on the Status of Women, gender, girls rights, human rights, United Nations, Women's rights

How social media changed the women’s movement

Read my speech from last week’s panel discussion at the Commission on the Status of Women:

Dear colleagues, and feminist sisters and brothers – good morning!

We are here today to undertake an important task – bridging the gap between online and offline activism.

The Commission on the Status of Women has always been a place where these two tracks meet to galvanize action and translate policy into practice. It’s the two weeks of the year when the twittersphere is as full of gender discussions as the UN is full of feminists.

As someone who has been an activist for over 10 years, essentially ‘coming of age’ during the reign of the MDG framework, and in the shadow of the Beijing platform – which has taken on an almost mystic legendary quality for many of my generation – I would like to take a moment to reflect on the ways in which I believe social media has changed the face of the women’s movement.

When I first attended the CSW in 2009, my biggest concern was finding an electric socket. The conference rooms, including the General Assembly hall, were relics from a bygone era, and the most exciting event took place when I was forced to unplug a lamp in the hallway to charge my laptop – instantly plunging the entire area into complete darkness.

For me this experience really sums up the distance we have come in the way the UN views the importance of using technology to increase transparency, accountability and participation.

The MDG’s were decided in a small room filled UN technocrats. The Sustainable Development Goals on the other hand are the product of probably the widest consultation the United Nations has ever led. This could not have happened without social media platforms and forums for online discussion.

The Beijing platform Section J calls for the use of new forms of media to bridge gaps and ensure women’s voices are included in decisions that affect their lives.

We all know the challenges we face in making this a reality: the digital divide which prevents women and girls from accessing, using, controlling and designing tech tools; discrimination in all its forms which means women’s engagement with technology is often fraught with violence and abuse; girls shying away from studying computers or science, leaving this sector to be driven by a male-centred user experience.

But we must also consider the ways in which social media has allowed young feminists and gender equality activists to make their voices heard, where once only the ‘specialist’ was allowed to speak.

I am part of a millennial generation that uses blogs to share our innermost thoughts; that relies on Facebook for breaking news; a generation that can say a lot in 120 characters; who views distances and borders as an insignificant detail.

The exchange of views, the proliferation of opinions, and what I believe to be the consciousness raising process that takes place any time there is a feminist debate online – is invaluable to the women’s movement.

Forums like the OECD’s Wikigender have opened up a new space where vital gender and development issues can be widely discussed, and more importantly, where these discussions can impact influencers including donors, the media and multilateral institutions.

In bridging online and offline activism, I have had the privilege of working directly with girls from all over the world.  As an expert with Plan International, my work involves training girls to be advocates and use social media tools to engage with decision makers both locally and globally.

Our focus on including girls in the post 2015 agenda has translated into real accomplishments in terms of policy outcomes, and it has, I believe, also fostered a new generation of girl-advocates and empowered citizens.

The goals on eliminating child marriage and FGM, on increasing educational achievements for girls with a focus on quality and safety, have all been hard fought for by many, including girls.

We have used social media as a tool for extending the reach of girl-led campaigns through youtube where they uploaded videos and vlogs; through Facebook, where girls shared inforgraphics, stories and links; through twitter, where their voices were heard by those in charge; through SMS messaging campaigns, online forums and digital news magazines.

Through offline advocacy, ensuring girls meet and talk directly with their own governments at capitol and mission level. And most importantly, capturing these meetings through video, photos and blogs, and using them to hold decision makers to account for the promises they make to girls behind closed doors.

In 2014, one girl advocate who stood up for her right to an education was awarded the Nobel peace prize. Malala Yousafzai remains an inspiration to every girl in the world who has been denied her rights, for her bravery in overcoming extreme violence to make her voice heard.

I believe that social media is and will continue to be an instrument and a platform for women and girls who will not be silent in face of discrimination and exclusion. My experience, and those of my fellow panellists, shows there is still a gap between online and offline activism, but it is narrowing rapidly.

It is now up to us to keep the decision making doors wide open so women and girls from all across the globe can use social media platforms to enter into these spaces, influence the powers that be, and in so doing become the next generation of feminists and activists.

Thank you.

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watch this speech online here: http://www.wikigender.org/index.php/Side_event:_Making_women%27s_voices_heard_from_Beijing_to_Post-2015_in_social_media

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